Middle age

From the 11th century, the towns gained their own jurisdiction, and Germanic law was codified again. The presentation of evidence was being improved; sworn surgeons now became forensic doctors. The range of laws extends from facial injuries, bone injuries to castration, paralyses and chest injuries. The doctor and medical expert remains outside the court. At the beginning, the proof of the truth did not trust medical testimony very much. This medical testimony was mentioned for the first time at the end of the 6th century. The surgeon had to swear – “in ferramenta” - on his surgical instruments. The beginnings of a systematic forensic medidne can be found in the big trade centres of Northern Italy.

The Italian statute law and the first German recordings of law took place at the same time. Johann von Schwarzenberg's Bambergensis (1507) and the first German criminal law meant the ingenious fusion of both sources.

In the 13th century, the Chinese Si-wan-hu published the first book on forensic medicine, which was called the first systematic book at all on forensic medicine by MIRONOW (1961). In France, the forensic medicine was initially influenced by Roman law and the doctrines of Hippocrates and Aristoteles. Later Franco-Germanic and church law became more influential. The year 1278 recurds sworn-in surgeons around King Philip the Bold and in several cities (e. g. Rouen). Trial by ordeal and torture were the custom of these days, the doctors were there to interrupt the torture, not to stop it. Freiburg / Br. (Germany) had city surgeons beginning from the year 1403; they had to teach forensic medicine as well.